A. Schwarzenegger in the famous film " Pumping Iron " (1977) assures that his stunning figure is solely the result of the competent development of all muscles. He said that if he was going to increase any muscle by at least 1 cm, then he would have to increase other muscles. He also added that he would never deal with the increase or decrease of only one muscle, since everything should be in harmony. This is rightly noticed. This philosophy should be expanded and used in other areas of training, especially when performing shoulder training.
According to a scientific review published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research in June 2010, it is the shoulders that are most likely to be injured in weight training. Most likely, the fact is that most athletes devote their attention to such exercises as bench press. It is known that they strengthen the activity of the muscles that rotate the shoulders inward, for example, the subscapularis muscles. However, at the same time, unfortunately, they almost completely ignore the muscles that turn the shoulders outward.
As you know, the subscapularis muscle is the most important muscle that takes part in turning the shoulder inward. Bench presses - this is one of the exercises where such a turn is used. In February 2002, a study was conducted to which 20 professional powerlifters were invited. As a result of this study, it was noted that the most significant anatomical characteristic related to the athletic performance of athletes is an indicator of the thickness of the subscapularis muscle.
But the whole point is that the excessive development of this muscle leads not only to increase the effectiveness of powerlifters, but also to the development of structural imbalance, which leads to excessive injury.
Although most powerlifters and other power athletes agree that muscle imbalances can lead to serious shoulder problems, they do not have sufficient skills to deal with these problems. At the end of the training, they perform special light exercises for the muscles of the shoulder girdle. However, this is clearly not enough to eliminate this imbalance. Specialized exercises for these small muscles in the final stages of the training process, of course, should be considered a very successful idea, but everything is much more complicated.
The fact is that exercises for the muscles of the shoulder girdle are only one aspect of the correction / prevention of structural shoulder imbalance. Due to the stooped shoulders, tension and tension of the small and infraspinatus muscles can be obtained. As a result of this, the risk of squeezing the shoulder rotator syndrome may increase. To straighten the stooped shoulders, you need to do exercises for the muscles that bring the shoulder blades (for example, the rhomboid muscles) and lower them down (for example, the lower section of the trapezium). For this, it is advisable to perform such an exercise as craving for the face. During this exercise, the shoulder blades are reduced, and then the shoulder turns outward. Naturally, one should not be limited only to this exercise.
One of the most important principles for developing a training program is based on the fact that exercises for large muscle groups are performed at the very beginning of the training. For example, the athlete decided to pull up after lifting the biceps or to perform a set of exercises for the forearms. It is important to note that in this case, the accumulated fatigue associated with the study of small muscle groups will lead to a sharp decrease in efficiency in the subsequent study of powerful latissimus muscles.
Also, in case of rhomboid muscle fatigue at the beginning of the training process, it will be much more difficult to maintain a rational technique when performing frontal squats or lifting various weights, for example, lifting the barbell to the chest.
In order to fully develop the muscles of the shoulder girdle, you need to engage in many types of exercises. The fact is that, thanks to the hinged structure, the shoulder joint receives a very wide range of movements. That is why very effective techniques for this purpose are three-sets and supersets.
Given the above points, we consider an example of training that will provide correction of imbalances in the structure, which can be carried out in the final stage of training. It will also be useful to add that if there is a significant imbalance in all exercises, a couple of additional approaches can be added.
A1. Raising straight arms with dumbbells forward, lying chest on a bench inclined at 30 degrees, 3 × 10-12, 3011, rest 10 seconds
A2. External rotation of the shoulder of the arm with a dumbbell, with elbow support in the knee, 3 × 10-12, 3010, rest 10 seconds
A3. External rotation of the shoulder of the arm on the low block at an angle of 30 degrees at the elbow, 3 × 10-12, 3010, rest 60 seconds
This protocol should be performed 6 times in a row. After that, the athlete can begin to perform other exercises for the muscles of the shoulders. You should also consider the existence of many other exercises that contribute to improving shoulder health. For example, a long bicep head attached to a growth over the shoulder joint is a very common area of discomfort in people complaining of shoulder pain. Therefore, the assessment of the balance of the structure of the shoulder muscles should consist of an analysis of several muscle groups, even if there is a possible lack of correlation of these muscles with the shoulder joint.
In conclusion, it should be added that structural balance exercises should be performed by all athletes. As for bodybuilders, the importance of these exercises cannot be overestimated. Without a doubt, even at the peak of his fame, Schwarzenegger would have lost even in modern tournaments for the pros. But it’s important to consider the following point: Arnold inspired a huge number of women and men to train using gravity. At the same time, he gave excellent advice on the implementation of training, which has not lost its relevance to this day.