- Basic principles of proper nutrition
- Useful and harmful products for weight loss
- Proper nutrition for outdoor activities: weekly menu
- How to organize proper nutrition for weight loss?
What is proper nutrition ">
- 1 Basic principles of good nutrition
- 2 Useful and harmful products for weight loss
- 3 Good Nutrition for Hiking: Weekly Menu
- 3.1 Monday
- 3.2 Tuesday
- 3.3 Wednesday
- 3.4 thursday
- 3.5 Friday
- 3.6 Saturday
- 3.7 Sunday
- 4 How to organize proper nutrition for weight loss?
Basic principles of proper nutrition
There are only two scientifically based principles of proper nutrition. The first - the amount of protein, fat and carbohydrates in the diet, as well as its energy value depend on the gender, age of the person, and his occupation. Energy expenditures should exceed the amount of nutrients that “comes” with food, if a person wants to lose weight. This applies to all proper nutrition menus.
The second science-based principle is product diversity. In addition to macronutrients, that is, proteins, fats and carbohydrates, the body needs vitamins, minerals, fiber. They are contained in food in various proportions.
The remaining principles are additional in nature:
- Drink enough water . The norm is 30 ml per kilogram of weight for normal conditions, and 40 for high humidity and a hot climate. Some scientists consider water from soups, vegetables, and tea with coffee, while others do not. It is enough for a simple user to know that more than 300 ml of hot drinks per day, and more than 1 serving of soup are overkill;
- There are at regular intervals . Previously, it was called the “principle of fractional nutrition”, but in the 2000s, a number of studies confirmed that you need to eat 5-7 times a day only if you are a professional athlete, or suffer from a disease that does not allow you to eat substantial meals. It is enough for an ordinary person to eat every 3-5 hours, but strictly at the same time, so as not to overload the digestive organs, and maintain a stable level of blood glucose;
- The last meal is a couple of hours before bedtime . This is necessary for the nutrients to enter the bloodstream, and the body to really recover at night, “repair” tissues damaged during exercise, “pump” immunity, and not digest food;
- Moderation in food . Overeating, a feeling of heaviness and lethargy after eating are faithful companions of obesity and excess weight. Most people should get up from the table with a feeling of slight hunger. The latter does not apply to athletes and advanced fitness, they should eat so much that saturation occurs, and all planned calories, proteins, fats and carbohydrates are in the body, and not just “planned”;
- The basis of the diet is whole organic foods . Yes, approximately 20% of the energy can be obtained with dried fruits, properly prepared canned vegetables, and frozen meat and fish, but it is better to cook from whole cereals, fresh vegetables, lean meat and fish that have not undergone prolonged freezing. Residents of the northern regions should pay attention to pickled vegetables;
- Limit simple carbohydrates . For a person engaged in physical labor, powerlifting-style strength training, or sprinting, there is no fundamental difference when exactly there are simple carbohydrates. For an ordinary person, it is better to “surround” them with strength training, and choose only fruits, dried fruits, or low-fat sweets like marshmallows. The total share of sweets in the diet should not exceed 10-20% of calories. The second digit is for the physically active;
- Breakfast is better to eat . But the filling of the first meal depends on the rate of absorption of carbohydrates. There are people who quickly digest and assimilate such food. They are not recommended breakfast with empty oatmeal, even with fruit or honey. So it’s better to eat fried eggs as a first meal, or lean meat with any boiled cereal, for example, with buckwheat;
- A large amount of fried foods is equal to an unhealthy liver and impaired fat metabolism . That is why food for proper nutrition is advised to stew, bake, and grill, but do not fry in large quantities of oil. The maximum is to fry chicken breast or vegetables in a small amount of coconut or olive oil, and this is not more often than a couple of times a week
Useful and harmful products for weight loss
Modern science has abandoned the concept of harmful products. The food is divided into natural and not so good. The latter should not be more than 20% in the diet. Natural - this is whole grain cereals, meat, fish, bird eggs, fish roe, dairy products with a low percentage of fat, natural vegetable oils, high-quality butter, nuts, dried fruits, fruits, vegetables, and honey. “Dose” for weight loss should be sources of simple carbohydrates - these are dried fruits, fruits, and honey. Nuts are also limited due to their high calorie content. It is impossible to exclude egg yolks and butter - they contain animal fat necessary for the synthesis of sex hormones. Girls who have not eaten it for years encounter menstrual irregularities and a deterioration in the quality of skin, hair, and nails.
Processed foods that can be eaten on proper nutrition are pasta from durum wheat, wholemeal bread, and bran “balls”. Conditionally healthy processed foods include oatmeal “Hercules” without added sugar, buckwheat and wheat flakes, whole grain breads.
Sweets, sweets, convenience foods and fast food, 3 in 1 drinks, coffee with cream from a vending machine, soda, juice and alcohol are best minimized. Is there any kind of food that’s getting better ">
Proper nutrition for outdoor activities: weekly menu
There are two options for compiling the menu. Usually on the Internet they write something like a set of dishes that are in no way related to each other, which you need to cook yourself every day. This is not a prerequisite. The whole progressive world has long been using the so-called “block cooking” for weight loss.
Two days a week are chosen, usually Sunday and Wednesday. These days two meat or meat and fish dishes are prepared, one large dish of stewed vegetables, and 2-3 types of cereals are cooked. Next, portions of “cereal plus protein” and “protein plus vegetables” are laid out in containers. It remains only to bring fruit, or chop a salad of vegetables.
The menu “for aesthetes” and cooking lovers every day may look like this.
In the morning, warm the oatmeal soaked in a glass of water in the evening, add the grated apple and a spoonful of protein or cottage cheese. For lunch - a serving of meat or fish with broth, stewed vegetables, cereals or pasta in the form of a hot dish. For dinner - stewed mushrooms with vegetables, a serving of brown rice. Snacks - fruits, a handful of nuts, yogurt or high protein cottage cheese. You can eat a boiled egg if that day there was no omelet for breakfast. For those who lack protein, you can add casserole to your diet.
Incise an apple, bake in a microwave, pull out the middle, mix with cottage cheese, add flax or chia seeds, and a sweetener. Get breakfast. You can supplement it with tea or coffee with cinnamon. For lunch - vegetable or fish soup, vegetable salad, with whole grain bread. Put a little chicken breast in the salad to get the protein. Dinner - baked potatoes, plus country cheese or unsalted feta cheese. Snacks are the same, the menu is suitable for vegetarians, if you change the breast for soy products.
Whole-grain toast for breakfast is a great start to the day if you add creamy cottage cheese, or homemade cheese and a little honey to it. Hungry "> Thursday
A protein omelet is good when 2 whole eggs are added to the proteins. So, 4 squirrels, 2 eggs, cereal bread and a green smoothie of apples, celery and parsley to start this day. For lunch - any chicken soup, and vegetable salad. Do not add mayonnaise to the water. Dinner - steamed fish or seafood with baked potatoes.
Cottage cheese with fruit - a gourmet breakfast, especially if the cottage cheese is natural and of medium fat content. You can add a spoonful of milk and beat everything with a blender to get a delicious cottage cheese dessert. For lunch - soup with salmon or mackerel, plus vegetable salad. Dinner - cottage cheese casserole with fruits.
Oat or buckwheat flakes with berries. You can add cottage cheese or protein for protein. Lunch - stewed ordinary or cauliflower, meat cutlet or low-fat fish. Vegetable juice. Dinner - porridge from barley, stewed beef without adding fat.
A glass of milk, squash or pumpkin pancakes. For lunch, mushroom soup, and a salad of vegetables with the addition of corn. Dinner - grilled fish with vegetables.
Important: you can choose a snack yourself, this menu is not a dogma. For effective weight loss, the amount of servings should be calculated based on the daily energy requirement
How to organize proper nutrition for weight loss?
The rate of weight loss should not exceed 1 kg per week. It is necessary to calculate the calorie content and BJU so as to lose from 500 to 1000 g per week. Usually this is achieved by reducing daily calories by 200-300 kcal of energy requirements. In calorie counters like "Fat Secret" you need to choose "slow weight loss." Higher rates will lead to weight loss due to muscle mass. This increases the risk of osteoporosis, significantly worsens the appearance of the figure and slows down the metabolism. If you continue to lose weight too quickly, you will need to eat very little to maintain weight. This is difficult, and therefore get better after strict diets.
Proper nutrition for weight loss is not a diet. Sit a week, drain a kilogram of water, and then return to a fast food restaurant will not work. You need to adhere to such a diet for about 12-15 weeks in order to seriously reduce weight. Then the weight is maintained. Add 1-2 servings of cereals or bread to the diet, and rest from a calorie deficit. If it is necessary to continue losing weight, they return to it after a few months.
Proper nutrition should be accompanied by feasible physical activity. WHO recommends half an hour of aerobic activity every day. Healthy women need to add strength work with their own body weight or weights in order to maintain a good metabolic rate.